'Base' to 'Skirt' joint.

'Weights and Measures' markings:   Round measures have their 'Weights and Measures' markings

                                                                                   impressed into the 'beaker' section of the measure, usually at

                                                                                   the upper rim.

                                                                                   'Lipped' measures, with the exception of the 1½ Gill measure,

have a small dab of lead applied to the inside of the 'Lip'. When capacity tested at a local authorities official 'Weights and Measures' office, the office impresses a 'Verification' mark into the lead.

( I believe that the 1½ Gill 'Lipped' could not be verified by a 'Weight and Measures' office as it was a 'non standard' size ).

I make the assumption that measures were tested in the town of manufacture before being provided to the Admiralty, therefore I do not have a good explanation why some measures do not have a lead 'Verification' mark.

One colleague suggests that as the RN was not selling rum by volume ( it was giving it away ), there may have been a period of time when 'Verification was not required.

Another colleague advises that 'Weights and Measures officials visited annually to check the capacity of measures, removing from service those found to be incorrect.

Those removed from service did indeed have their lead seals melted off.

The image below left shows the 'Verification' mark on a Burt Brothers measure. The centre image is also a Burt Brothers measure, however the 'Verification' mark is not present. Both measures have Vocabulary numbers.

The image right shows the base of the measure whose 'Verification' mark is missing, it has been pushed out, increasing the capacity.

I think it likely that the measure failed a capacity test during a 'Weights and Measures' inspection visit, the 'Verification' mark was then removed.

Two small dimples can be seen on the upper left hand side of the 'Lip', on the reverse, copper side ,a small amount of damage can also be seen, perhaps suggesting that this is where the 'Lip' was resting when the lead seal was struck with the 'Verification stamp.


Tinning:   The inside of a 'Lipped' measure 'Body' and the inside

                       of the 'Lip' are 'Tinned' to prevent a reaction between

                       the copper of the measure and the spirit, leaving a

                       metallic taste.

                       Older measures may just show enough tinning inside

                       the 'Lip' to suggest that they were once tinned. As the

                       tin layer was relatively thin, persistant use of metal

                       polish could remove it easily.

                       The insides of some 'Lips' may have been previously

                       covered with a lacquer which has since turned brown,

                       it is often difficult to remove without damaging the

                       underlying layer of tin.

Base:  The open end of the 'Body' is closed off by the 'Base'.

           The 'Base' is a disk of copper plate with a shoulder that

           fits into the lower rim of the  'Skirt', as shown in the image

           right.

           A metallic reinforcing ring sits on top of the joint and the

           lowest edge of the 'Skirt' is crimped over the assembly, as  

           shown.

           Many measures have their bases punched in or out,

           changing the capacity of the measure, either for better or

           worse. 

Broad arrow to 'Skirt'.                                  High 'Skirt' on a pair of older measures Gill and half Gill       'Skirt' shape.
Two Quart 'Lipped' measures showing body shape.

Body:   Considering the 'Lipped' measures in my

             collection that have either a Broad Arrow or a

             'Vocabulary' number, only one has a castellated seamed body, all the rest are seamless, they appear therefore  to have been 'spun'.

The body tapers out  sharply from a slim neck to a wide belly, returning in to form a skirt and base rim.

The image right shows two Quart 'Lipped' measures. The Quart far right is Victorian, it has a Broad Arrow on the 'Skirt', shown in image below, left.

The 'Skirt' of the Victorian measure is higher than the measure left of picture, also the Victorian measure is a little shorter overall, therefore it's body is more bulbous than the measure left.

The 'Skirt' tends to be higher with older measures, as seen in the image below centre.

Generally speaking, the body shape of RN measures falls somewhere between these two examples, the most recent measure more likely to look like the measure left of image.

½ Pint 'Lipped' measure with seamless tapering handle.

Smaller measures tend to have seamless handles, but again exhibiting some variety.

Gaskell and Chambers small measures have a seamless handle that does not taper.

The majority of Burt Brothers 'Lipped' measures were manufactured in 1955, these have a seamless handle that does taper, I make the assumption that those handles were 'drawn' to gradually reduce the diameter along the length of the handle.

Later Burt Brothers 'Lipped' measures from 1959 have a handle that does not taper but is seamless.

The image left shows a ½ Pint Burt Brothers 'Lipped' measure with a tapering seamless handle.

Round, seamed and tapered.            Square, seamed and tapered.

Handle:    Unlike 'Round' measures, the shape and

                 construction of 'Lipped' measure

                 handles exhibits some variety.

The image first right, shows the handle from a Gallon

'Lipped'. The handle is made from a single piece of

trapezoidal copper plate, formed to be round and

brazed at the seam.

The seam is visible as the light yellow strip running to

the inside of the handle.

As the copper plate is trapezoidal, once joined, the

resulting tube has a taper from top to bottom.

The area of the tube just above the point that is to be

formed into the lower fixing remains round, whilst the

area of the tube just below the point that is to be

formed into the upper fixing becomes oval.





The image above, far right, shows the handle from a second Gallon 'Lipped' measure. This handle is also made from a single piece of trapezoidal copper plate, it is however formed to be square, then brazed at the inner seam.

As the copper plate is trapezoidal, the resulting handle tapers from top to bottom.


As a very general rule, the larger 'Lipped' measures tend to have seamed tapering handles, however, there is a Gallon 'Lipped' in my own collection having a handle that is not seamed nor tapered, therefore it must have been made from seamless copper tube.

Handle top fixing to 'Lip'.                                  2 rivets of the handle upper fixing.                    Joint strengthened or repaired.
From a Half Gallon with Broad arrow to 'Lip'.   From a vocabed Gaskell & Chambers Pint.     From a vocabed Burt Brothers Pint.

The lower handle position is secured to the 'Body' of the measure with a single, flat base, copper rivet.

My findings indicate that the finish of the lower end of the handle may take several different forms, all examples shown are from measures with either a Broad Arrow or a Vocabulary number.

               The upper part of the handle always fixes to the rear of the 'Lip', attached with two, flat base, copper rivets.

               Unlike the upper fixing of a 'round' measure handle, with it's characteristic 'fish tale' like finish, the finish

               of a 'Lipped' measure handle upper fixing is generally flat, as shown in the image below, left.

               The centre image shows the flat base of the two fixing rivets - in use, these may have become

               loose, to strengthen or repair the fixing, it was quite common to run solder over rivet heads, also between the

               handle upper fixing and the outside of the 'Lip', shown in the image right.

Viewed from above, the 'Lip' has a pear like shape,the pear like shape remains fairly constant throughout the range of sizes - from Half Gill to Gallon, but becoming more pronounced with the larger sizes.

The images below show a comparison between a Burt Brothers and Gaskell and Chambers Pint 'Lipped' measure,

( Burt Brothers left in both cases ).

Being shorter and fatter, the G&C measure has a larger opening in the neck, but the 'Lip' shapes remain similar.

Comparison of Burt Brothers (left both images) and Gaskell and Chambers Pint 'Lipped' measures.
Junction of 'Lip' and 'Body', from the rear.                                    Underside of 'Lip' showing rolled edge.
#7 Gill - Burt Bros, 'Vocabulary' on base.        #8 Half Gill - 'Broad Arrow' on 'Skirt'.              #9 Gallon - 'Vocabulary' on 'Lip'.
#4 Pint - Vocabulary on 'Lip'.                         #5 ½ Pint - Burt Bros, 'Vocabulary' on base.    #6 1½ Gill - No other markings.
#1 Gallon  - with 'Vocabulary' on 'Lip'.           #2 Half Gallon - Broad Arrow on 'Lip'.            #3 Quart - Broad Arrow on 'Skirt'.

Capacity Marking Styles:    Up until a few weeks ago, (August '14), I would have written that as far as 'Lipped'

                                                             measures with 'Vocabulary' numbers are concerned, only the 'Square' style

                                                             font was used to indicate the capacity of a 'Lipped' measure. I then visited a

                                                             Naval museum where I saw a Gallon 'Lipped' measure capacity marked with

                                                             the 'Italic' font, it had a 'Vocabulary' number and also a square handle!

I have little doubt that other marking styles were used on 'Lipped' measures predating 'Vocabulary' numbers, but unlike the identification of 'Round' measures without 'Vocabulary' numbers, identifying Ex Royal Navy 'Lipped' measures without 'Vocabulary' numbers cannot be guaranteed.

The image above right shows the base of a One Gill 'Lipped' measure. The 'Vocabulary' number is '53154' and the year of manufacture is 1955.

The manufacturers name is 'Burt Brothers', based in Birmingham.

'Burt Brothers' were quite prolific makers of 'Lipped' measures, most commonly seen in Half Gill, Gill, Half Pint and Pint sizes, the year of manufacture is mostly 1955, but fellow collectors have advised that they have 1957 and 1959 versions in their collections. 

I am not aware of Burt Brothers making 'Lipped' measures larger than the 'Pint' size for the Royal Navy. I believe that they were also making measures for the civilian market, having seen several measures dated from the 1950's and later, without vocabulary numbers.

Gaskell and Chambers Pint 'Lipped' measure.               Burt Brothers Gill 'Lipped' measure.


Manufacturers Marks:   Manufacturers marks first began to appear on 'Lipped' measures in the early 1950's,

                                                      shortly after the introduction of 'Vocabulary' numbers.

                                                      Most of my 'Lipped' measures do not have a manufacturers mark at all, as they

                                                      predate 'Vocabulary' numbers.

I have only one 'Lipped' measure with the 'G&C' mark as shown below left. The marks are on the base of a Pint 'Lipped'.

G&C being the initials of Gaskell & Chambers - their 'Tap and Barrel' type logo appears at the bottom of the image, under the year, 1954.

'53152' is the 'Vocabulary' number for a Pint 'Lipped' measure.

'Vocabulary' number to the base of a Gallon measure.
'Vocabulary' number to the 'Lip' of a Gallon measure.                     'Vocabulary' number to the 'Lip' of a Pint measure.

'Vocabulary Numbers':  'Vocabulary' numbers are a number system used to identify items of Naval stores.

                                                      The precursor to 'Vocabulary' numbers was 'AP' or 'Admiralty Pattern' numbers and 

                                                      the successor to 'Vocabulary' numbers was 'NSN' numbers - 'NATO' stock numbers.

                                                      'Vocabulary' numbers were phased in, as far as items of rum issue equipment were

                                                      concerned, in the early 1950's.

My earliest 'Vocabulary' marked 'Lipped' measure is from 1954, a Gaskell and Chambers, 1 Pint 'Lipped' measure, shown above, in the 'Makers Marks' section -  'Vocabulary' number 53152 . The markings are to the base of the measure, which is the location they would most usually be found.

The image below shows the 'Vocabulary' number from the base of a Gallon 'Lipped' measure, the number '1' of the sequence is peculiarly upside down?

Of the 'Lipped' measures with 'Vocabulary' numbers in my own collection, most all are marked to the base, it is quite uncommon to find examples with the 'Vocabulary' number marked to the 'Lip', as shown in the images left and right below. 

'Admiralty Pattern' & 'Vocabulary Numbers'

for Royal Navy 'Lipped' Rum Measures.


            Size          

 Admiralty Pattern 1929

 Admiralty Pattern 1939

 Vocabulary Number 1951

    Gallon

               72A

               72A

               53148

    Half Gallon

               73A

               73A

  Not listed - Not issued?

    Quart

               74A

               74A

  Not listed - Not issued?

    Pint

               75A

               75A

               53152

    Half Pint

               76A

               76A

               53153

    1½ Gill

 Not listed - Not issued?

               79A

  Not listed - Not issued?

    Gill

               77A

               77A

               53154

    Half Gill

               78A

               78A

               53155


'Lip':  The 'Lip' is the part that sits on top of the 'Body', the upper fixing of the 'Handle' attaches to the rear of the 'Lip'.

          Some 'Lips' have a castellated joining seam to the rear - when found on 'Round' measures this indicates the

          oldest type of measure.

          ( My oldest Victorian 'Lipped' measure does not have a seam in the 'Lip', nor the 'Body', yet I have a 'Lipped'  

          measure with both a seamed 'Lip' and 'Body', it also has a 'Vocabulary' number, hence it dates after the early

          1950's ).

          The majority of 'Lips' are seamless, suggesting that they were punched from a sheet.

          The 'Lip' has a shoulder which fits neatly inside the 'Body'. Where the 'Lip and 'Body' of the measure meet, the

          'Lip' to 'Body' join is brazed to effect a seal.

          The image below left, shows the horizontal seam of the 'Lip' to 'Body' junction. The castellated joint of the 'Lip' 

          can also be seen, partially covered by the 'Handle' upper fixing.

          The entire outer rim of the 'Lip' has a rolled edge, as can be seen in the image below, right.

Front view - 'Pint Lipped'.                                                                                                Side view - 'Pint Lipped'
Base view - 'Pint Lipped'.

Construction:      The three images below show the front, base and side views of a 'Pint Lipped' measure with

                                     'Vocabulary' number. ( This particular measure manufactured by Burt Brothers ).

                                     RN 'Lipped' measures tend to follow a similar basic outline, but there can be notable

                                     exceptions.

                                     Four distinct parts make up the measure - the 'Lip', 'Handle', 'Body' and 'Base'.

Lipped measures without 'vocabulary numbers' or 'broad arrows':


'Broad arrows' were applied to 'lipped' measures up until 1912/13.

'Vocabulary numbers' first appeared in the early 1950's.

Therefore, there is a gap of 40 years or so, where RN measures were not 'marked' at all. ( The 'unmarked' period ).

There isn't an absolute set of rules for identifying measures from the 'unmarked period', therefore each measure needs to be considered on it's own merits.

When considering 'round' measures - from late Victorian times, up until the cessation of the rum issue in 1970, the basic design changed very little, if at all ( with the exception of 3 part to 2 part construction ). Therefore the design did not change for at least 80 years. The photographic record suggests even longer.

The same can be said for 'pumps' and 'funnels', and to a slightly lesser degree 'barricoes' and 'tubs'. It therefore stands to reason that the same could be said for 'lipped' measures - once the Admiralty found a design that worked, it stuck with it, perhaps even Crown Copyright.

A 'vocabulary numbered' 'lipped' measure looks much the same as a late Victorian, 'broad arrowed', 'lipped' measure, therefore measures from the 'unmarked' period, that appear to be the same as the above two, will very likely be 'lipped' RN measures.


The information that follows is drawn from my experience as a collector and observations made over a number of years from sources such as the photographic record, the National Maritime Museum, the museum of the Royal Navy at Portsmouth, and more importantly, the Naval and Victualling museum at Plymouth.


The fact that 'lipped' measures were in widespread use, particularly in the licencing and brewing industries, for example, means that there are thousands of 'lipped' measures in circulation.

I believe that a set of simple references can be applied to filter out the ones that are not RN measures, as I believe that the design of the RN 'lipped' measures was unique, and remained so through the 20th century, up until 1970.


Once the non RN measures are identified and discounted, the quantity of those that remain is low enough to consider that they are the 'unmarked' naval 'lipped' measures.

Most 'Lipped' measures will have certain characteristics that will immediately identify them as not being Royal Navy measures, some may need closer examination - examples given below.



The image above shows a full set of 'Lipped' rum measures.

The 'Lipped' measures were considered to be more accurate than the round measures, discussed on another page, therefore they were used to measure neat spirit in the 'Spirit Room'.

( There were certain conditions for small ships where 'Round' measures were 'only to be demanded if actually required' - ( from 'Naval Stores' ) therefore on small ships, the 'Lipped' measures may have been used to measure both neat spirit and 'grog' - the mixture of rum and water).


In size order, the set initially comprised of seven measures: Gallon, Half Gallon, Quart, Pint, Half Pint, Gill and Half Gill.

The 1929 edition of the Naval Victualling Manual, BR93, does not list a 1½ Gill lipped measure, but the 1939 edition does. Introduction of the 1½ Gill 'Lipped' measure was therefore some time between 1929 and 1939, making the set a run of eight measures.

The next publication of the Victualling Manual occurred in 1951, the 1½ Gill 'Lipped' is not listed, neither is the Half Gallon or Quart 'Lipped', making the set a run of five at that time.


All observations that follow are taken from 'Lipped' measures that have either a 'Vocabulary' number or a 'Broad Arrow'. 'Lipped' measures without either of the above are discussed at the end of this page.

Full set of 8 Lipped Measures.
Wrong body / skirt. Not a Royal Navy measure.

Body and skirt:The image below left, is the same reference, vocabulary numbered Pint measure. The main

                              body is conical, increasing in diameter to towards the base, where a gentle curve takes it

                              inwards, towards the skirt, the height of the skirt varies slightly with measure size. The skirt is finished with a flat section, that on it's underside, encapsulates a steel ring, for increased strength and stability.

The image to the centre shows a measure with a lip construction that looks acceptable, the body is conical and increasing in size towards the base, however the skirt arrangement is not correct for an RN measure - ( the handle is also too large ).

The image to the right also has the conical body, but the body fails to curve in sufficiently at the skirt junction.

Side view of an HR measure - they are not Royal Navy measures.
A vocabulary numbered pint measure.         

Tinning: All naval rum measures, of both the 'lipped' and

                 'round' types, had their insides as well as the

                 inner surface of the 'lip' 'tinned'.

Some older 'lipped' measures may present with the tinning worn and patchy or largely missing from the lip, likely due to over enthusiastic cleaning. In such a case, the tinning should be visible and intact inside the measure.

The image below left, shows an old 'unmarked' measure with large areas of tinning missing from the lip. However, sufficient tinning remains, indicating that at one time, the lip of this measure was tinned.

'Trigger' style handle - Not a Royal
Navy measure


As mentioned earlier, there was a 40 or so year gap between the last broad arrow marked measures and the first vocabulary numbered measures appearing, in the early 1950's. ( The 'unmarked' period ).

This time period will cover both George V and George VI. By the time Elizabeth II came to the throne, Vocabulary numbers were in use. All 'unmarked' measures, thought to be naval in origin, will therefore have  'GR' UV marks.

As the vast majority of naval rum measures were manufactured in Birmingham, when trying to decide if an 'unmarked' measure may have been a Royal Navy measure, one point to look favourably upon is those items from the Birmingham W&M office, having the W&M testing identification - ( 6 ).

Measures from other W&M offices may need much closer scrutiny.


Ships and establishments were visited annually, to have their measures tested for stated capacity. Those that failed had their lead swipes removed and could no longer be used.

Presumably, they were returned to the Naval Stores and a new one issued.

Some items with swipes removed, were initially 'struck' hard enough for the outline of the 'stamp' to show on the outside of the lip.

Quite a few 'unmarked' ( no vocabulary number ) measures have had their seals removed - in this case, authenticity ( naval or not ) needs to be decided in conjunction with the other factors discussed above.

Reduced tinning left, full tinning right - both could be unmarked RN measures.

When comparing broad arrowed and vocabulary numbered measures, the shape of the handle remains fairly consistant, similar to the handle in the image above left. The lower fixing point height does vary across makers and is therefore not a good reference for unmarked measures. The same can be said for the shape of the lower fixing. ( See images earlier on this page ). 

The image above right shows a measure with a 'trigger' style handle. This style of handle was not used on naval rum measures. It is therefore, a good indicator that a measure is not Ex Royal Navy.

Lip:     The side view of the lip can be

             seen in the image above left, the

             reference, vocabulary numbered,

 Pint measure.

The image first right, shows a view to the top of the lip, of a Half Gill measure, while the image far right, shows a view to the top of

the lip, of a Gallon measure. Both images are from vocabulary numbered measures.

The smaller measures in the set have the 'egg' shape, as first right, which gradually

fills out as the measures increase in size, to form the more 'pear' like shape, of the image far right.

The side view of the lip, left, above, shows that the top of the lip sits at an angle to the horizontal. This does not hold true for all vocabulary numbered measures and needs to be considered along with other features when determining if an unmarked measure may be of naval origin.

Unique Verification mark.

Final thoughts: There are a couple of other good indicators that may help in deciding if an unmarked

                             measure may be an Ex Royal Navy measure or not.

                             The source location is one such indicator. The geographic areas around existing or old naval bases tend to offer a much higher incidence of authentic Ex Naval equipment for sale. Applying the above criteria to unmarked measures  from such areas gives an additional level of confidence of an unmarked measures authenticity.

Secondly, purchasing measures as a part of a set or perhaps a full set. Some will almost certainly be marked and some unmarked. If the unmarked ones 'look' the same as the marked ones, and they meet the conditions above, then they are almost certain to be ex Royal Navy.

                              

I personally, am very confident that if all of the above conditions are met - then an unmarked measure will indeed be an Ex Royal Navy measure.




Should persons wish to complete a set of 'lipped' measures, then there are two options as far as the 'Quart' and 'Half Gallon' measures are concerned.

Because the lipped 'Quart' and Half Gallon' sizes were dropped from use some time between 1939 and 1951, there are not any Quart or Half Gallon lipped measures with vocabulary numbers.

Therefore, to complete a set, ones with a broad arrow need to be found, or alternatively, find unmarked ones that fit all of the criteria above.

The same can be said for the 'One and a Half Gill'. Not in use in 1951, therefore none will have a vocabulary number, but also, not in use before approximately 1939, therefore ones with broad arrows will not be found.


Regarding the one and a half gill lipped, as the frequency of their appearance for sale is very low, I think that they are a special case. I think that they are all Ex RN, as I cannot reason a measure of that size in use anywhere else.

The RN had them, as they were exactly the right size for the tot!

The image above shows four lipped measures, only one is a 'marked' measure ( has a vocabulary number ), the other 3 are unmarked. I believe that the 3 unmarked ones fit all of the criteria above.

'Marked' Half Gill, from above. (Egg).    'Marked' Gallon, from above. (Pear).
     ( Plan view of Vocabulary numbered lipped measures, for reference ).
'HR' seal - these measures are not Royal Navy measures.

General appearance: The image right, shows an Ex RN

                                         'lipped', and vocabulary numbered

                                         measure. ( Burt Brothers 'Pint' ).

The image below, shows a measure that is very different in appearance to the measure right. The design of Royal Navy lipped measures appears to have remained the same throughout the 20th century, therefore when looking for Ex Royal Navy measures that are unmarked, items that do not look anything like the measure to the right, should be disregarded

A vocabulary numbered pint measure.         
A vocabulary numbered pint measure.

The image left, shows a side view of a measure type that is in common circulation. This type of measure has very large lips, in relation to the body size. This is shown in the image below right.

What is supposed to be the verification mark -

(  Weights and Measures test mark stamped into a lead swipe inside the lip ), is not a verification mark at all, it is, I assume, the manufacturers mark - 'HR', either side of a crest, as shown in the image bottom left.

The HR measures are, I assume, reproductions, as when I tested one, it's measured capacity was nowhere near it's stated capacity.

Wrong handle fixing - Not a Royal
Navy measure. 
Wrong skirt. Not a Royal Navy
measure.

Handle fixing and type: The image below left, is the same Burt Brothers 'Pint', lipped and vocabulary

                                             numbered measure from earlier. My findings indicate that all 'broad arrowed' and

                                             'vocabulary numbered' lipped measures have common features, as far as the upper handle fixing point is concerned. As shown below left, the upper handle fixing point is to the rear of the 'lip', just below the rim, the handle is always attached with two copper rivets. It is quite common to find solder ran into the gap between the handle and lip and or covering the heads of the rivets on the inside of the lip. Either to strengthen the joint or effect a repair.

It therefore follows that the measure shown in the centre image below, is not a naval measure, as the handle fixing arrangement does not agree with the above.

Construction properties of the handle do vary across the broad arrowed and vocabulary numbered measures, dependant upon maker. Handles are mostly round, seamed and tapered, though they can be seamed and uniform across their length, seamless handles, both tapered and uniform are also present, as are seamed square section handles ( with rounded corners ) - so far, only found on Gallon measures.

Therefore, handle construction, unless wildly different from the above, is not a good indicator when considering if a particular 'unmarked' measure might be Ex Royal Navy or not. The handle shape however, is a good indicator.

Capacity marking style / font incorrect -
not a Royal Navy measure.
'Verification' mark inside 'Lip.                              No 'Verification' mark.                                 Base pushed out.
Tinning to the inside of the 'Lip' and 'Body'.

Capacity Marking: When considering if an unmarked measure may

                                   be a naval measure, the capacity marking style /

                                   font can be a good indicator.

I have covered capacity marking styles earlier in this page - ( for marked measures ). Should a measure not have a capacity marking style like those shown earlier, then it is very unlikely to be a naval measure and should be disregarded. 

The measure shown right, has a capacity marking style that does not conform to any of the styles shown earlier on this page. Therefore it is unlikely to be a Royal Navy measure. ( It also has other distinguishing features that confirm so ). 

Unique Verification mark: or UV mark. Once made, measures

                                                  were sent to the Weights and

                                                  Measures department of the local authority - local to the manufacturer. The Weights and Measures department checked the stated capacity against a standard measure. If the measure under test had a capacity that matched it's stated value, then the W & M departments mark was stamped into a lead swipe inside the lip.

One such W&M mark is shown in the image left. This mark shows the number '47 - for 1947, it therefore does not have a naval vocabulary number. Other information on the swipe is inside the rectangular box - the crown over GR - George Rex, and the number 6 below. The 6 denoting the Birmingham W&M office.

Unusually, the information contained on the swipe shown, does not include an 'alpha' character, above the number '47, which would have indicated the month ( in 1947 ), of testing.

The inside of the measure is fully tinned. This could be an unmarked Naval measure, providing further criteria are met.

The image below right, shows full tinning for comparison. This measure could also be an unmarked measure, as above, if further criteria are met.

The image below centre, shows a measure without tinning to the lip, ( or to the inside ), this measure should be disregarded if looking for unmarked Royal Navy measures.

Lip view of an HR measure - they are not Royal Navy measures.
No tinning - Not an RN measure.
Not a Royal Navy measure.